PCB Assembly: High-Quality Printed Circuit Board Design


Almost all electronic devices are made up of one or more printed-circuit boards. The printed circuit board not only holds the components and ICs together, but also facilitates the interconnections between each component. Large volumes of PCBs are manufactured for computers, portable electronics, and entertainment equipment every day. In addition, PCBs are also made for manufacturing, testing equipment, and spacecrafts.

Circute bord

Every electronics engineer out there, at some point in time, will have to design their own PCBs. To be successful in the PCB assembly industry, technicians and engineers must have the ability to construct a high-quality, all-purpose PCB. They definitely must learn how to do this with utmost confidence that the final product will not only meet the objective, but if possible exceed it.

Basic PCB Design Process

PCB design and PCB assembly start off by recognizing that there’s a need for a specially designed PCB. After finding out why there is a need for a particular PCB, designers should then decide on a final concept. This final design concept includes, but is not limited to, the specific functions that PCB must perform and have, circuit placements, circuit interconnection, design features, and the final dimensions.

In addition, the ambient temperature that the PCB will be operating in should also be addressed. Once the ambient operating temperature is determined, the designer should then use this information to specify what kind of material should be used to build the PCB. PCB materials and components should be selected accordingly to ensure operation under all forms of duress that the printed circuit board may be submitted to during its operational lifetime.

The PCB schematic should be drawn according to the final concept. The detailed schematic should illustrate the electrical implementation of each PCB function. Once the schematic is drawn, the designer can then make an accurate projection as to the PCB’s final dimension.

Bill of Materials

Before PCB assembly can proceed, a BOM, or bill of materials must be created in concurrence with the creation of the schematic. To efficiently select the components for the PCB, the designer must analyze the current node levels of the circuit and their maximum operating voltages. After the picking the electrically acceptable components, they then should be considered again based on size, availability, and budget.

Keep in mind that the schematic should be kept updated with the Bill of Materials at all times. Remember that the Bill of Materials should indicate the component’s quantity, value, part number, reference designators, and PCB footprint. These five aforementioned requirements are crucial since they indicate how many of component are required, explain the dimensions of each part for space allocation, and explain circuit locations and identifications while exactly recounting the circuit elements used for substitution and purchasing.

PCB Documentation

Documentation plays a big part in PCB assembly and design. The PCB’s documentation must include hardware dimensional illustrations, BOM, schematic, layout file, assembly instructions and drawings, component placement, and Gerber file set. Although not required, user guides are also useful. The Gerber file is actually jargon for the output layout files that are utilized by the manufacturers to make the PCB.

A complete Gerber file set must have the following:

Printed Circute bord• Net list file
• Drill legend
• Assembly illustration bottom and top
• Paste mask bottom and top
• Solder mask bottom and top
• FAB outline
• Drill file
• Component map
• Metal layers
• Silkscreen bottom and top

Schematic Details

The one that controls the whole PCB assembly project is the PCB schematics, so completeness and accuracy are crucial for success. Schematics include information that is needed for proper circuit operation. Schematics should always include information such as pin numbers, ratings, component values, and pin numbers.

Component Placement

After schematic details, the next in the process is component placement. PCB component placement is determined according to function, thermal management, and electrical noise considerations. Package sizes and placements are often reconsidered and changed based on cost and size. Components that are sucking up power greater than 10mA or conducting more than 10mW should powerful enough to warrant additional electrical and thermal considerations.

Of course, power management parts should make use of power planes or ground planes for heat management. Create high-current connections in accordance to reasonable drops in voltage for the connection.


We at www.pcbnet.com, ship high quality printed circuit board and assemble the Same Day! INSTANT on-line quotes and ordering. From prototype to production of single, double, and multi layer PC Boards.

Challengecoins4less.com offers great challenge coins


A lot of us may be yearning to know more information about challenge coins, like their appearance and form, and especially, the influential people who possess them.

Many years ago, unused bullets functioned as insignia. This continued until the first challenge coins from this era were produced by the Army’s 10th or 11th Special Forces Group. Since bullets were clearly supposed as perilous, each military unit was strictly commanded to use coins instead. We should really be thankful for their existence. Such coins saved the country and the world from further danger.

Their designs normally consist of the institution’s advocacy, and its emblem, or multi-dimensional designs, enamel highlights, and cut-outs. Commonly made of nickel, pewter, or copper, and normally are 1/10 inches thick and 1.5 – 2 inches in diameter, they come in different shapes and styles. Some of them are formed like dog tags, shields, pentagons, and arrowheads, while some,which are truly in limited editions, are gold-plated.

We traditionally see handshakes as quite a common act of expressing respect in our society

But there is something really special ina “secret handshake”. Itisusually practiced whenever a challenge coin is delivered as an award to someone. It is given through such handshake to such person, in a way that no one else will see it being conveyed to him.

Challenge Coin United States’ Presidents started keeping their own challenge coins when Bill Clinton initiated such trend. And Dick Cheney was the 1st ever US Vice President to possess one, followed by succeeding Vice Presidents.

Nowadays, challenge coins are also customized to match the demands of various associations. We can customize them so they beautifully represent the greatness our organizations.

They are just so popular that they have also been featured in the following TV programs and films:

Tony, from the NCIS episode “Cloak,” was given a coin by the US Secretary of the Navy.
Special Agent Derek Morgan constructs communication with a mute, traumatized boy, through a challenge coin, in episode 18: “Foundation,” of “Criminal Minds Season 7.”

Retired Rear Admiral A.J. Chegwidden’s coin’s was flipped by two main characters, in order to decide who will accompany the other to a brand new duty and who will resign, in the end of the TV show, “JAG.”
From the TV show, “Chase,” came the episode, “Betrayed,” where Deputy US Marshal Annie Frost was seen bearing her coin all the time.

In E-Ring, when a general is attempting to stop Samantha Liston from running to be assistant secretary of defense for special operations, Colonel Eli McNutty gives her a coin.

In “Private Valentine: Blonde and Dangerous,” Jessica Simpson got coined together with her fellow training graduates.

Challenge CoinsKnowing all the characteristics and functions of a challenge or custom coin, it is extremely important to obtain such in a state and condition that we can treasure in the longest period of time. As customers, we deserve nothing but the cream of the crop. And an abundance of customers like us are loudly expressing nothing but pure appreciation for the results they received from Challengecoins4less.com.

From military, police, fire department, corporate, business and even custom coins where we can choose and customize the designs to our satisfaction, Challengecoins4less.com got us covered. Right at the start, they immediately offer free: artwork, quote, revisions, and design.

Challengecoins4less.com claim, with all pride, that they are continuously supplying police and fire department coins to public servants nationwide, and even military coins to all branches of the US Armed Services: Marines, Navy, Air Force, Army, and Coast Guard. This strongly proves how trust-worthy and impressive their services are.

To begin our order, we have to fill out the free quote form, email them, or call their toll-free number. We need not worry because it is a non-obligatory form – hidden charges won’t be an issue either, as everything will be listed down properly on the quote. Nobody will ever oblige us to continue the purchase just by simply submitting the form. Nevertheless, it is always tempting for us to buy something from them, considering their excellent services.

After we have done the step above, that is when Challengecoins4less get to work on our chosen coin design. Within 24 hours, they will send back the design to us. Once they obtain the final design from us, they willimmediately pass it to the factory, and we simply have to wait for it within 14-17 days, guaranteed!

The majority has spoken. Challengecoins4less will never let us down. With their promising services, we will have our desired coin indeed conveniently!

Visit our website Challengecoins4less.com and check our  all services. We always provide best challenge coins with various design and affordable price.  

In Society

Enhancing Social Media Presence through SEO Consulting Services Provided by chronistsempelis


In the vast sea of websites in cyberspace, how can a web page stand out? This is the question presented to internet marketing consultants who are tasked to ensure that websites get to appear on the first page of search engine results. The process of search engine optimization (SEO) is employed to increase the visibility of a website in search engine results lists. It follows that when a website shows up more often in the results lists of search engines, it will get more visitors that can be easily converted into clients.

Potential customers can search for different types of content by using local search, image search, video search, news search, academic search, and other industry-specific search. It is important that websites continue to edit and improve their content. Content must have pieces of information that are correct and unique. It must also have the actual search terms and preferred keywords of search engine users.

A website must aim to publish content that can only be found in its web page

In that sense, it would be recognized as a leader in its area of expertise. The authority of a website can be determined if it gets links from web pages of good quality pages. Promoting a site by using an inbound link is considered a trusted SEO strategy. An inbound link is a link, which leads back to a website coming from another page. A website has more chances of appearing on the first page of a search engine results list if it has many inbound links.

SEO Consulting
The authority of a website also depends on the positive references that it gets from respected social media accounts. Reputable blogs and social media accounts can redirect to a website. Social media accounts are even monitored these days, contributing greatly to a website’s search engine ranking.

The influence of social media has become a fundamental aspect of SEO

Gone are the days when website engagement was limited to feedback exchanges on the site or through e-mail. Now, website engagement also deals with reviews, shares, trends and likes that are found in the social media accounts of the website. The concept of website engagement has even transcended to include content in the social media accounts related to the website and its field of expertise.

The boom of social media can be attributed greatly to the rise of mobile web surfing. In fact, the number of searches done on mobile devices such as laptops, tablets, and phones has already eclipsed the number of searches done on desktop computers. The information, feedback, and results blasted on social media travel quickly and reach a wider audience – an audience that can be easily engaged. The power of social media is something that companies are looking into now with much more importance. A website’s social media presence can be optimized by getting SEO consulting services provided by chronistsempelis.


A website, for it to attain good quality, must be capable of interacting with customers and visitors alike

It is also a requirement these days for a website to have corresponding social media accounts. These are crucial in reaching more customers and potential clients. Since there are numerous social media platforms, most websites have multiple social media accounts. The importance of social media accounts in SEO enters the picture when social gestures are measured. Social gestures include comments, shares, and likes. It is common knowledge these days that it is unacceptable for a website not to have social media accounts to complement it.

With SEO consulting services provided by chronistsempelis, businesses can enhance their social media presence. Being in the social media may seem simple because anybody can open a social media account, but using it is tricky. With the many fake and spam accounts around, it is advisable for businesses maintain social media accounts that are solely associated with respected accounts. Moreover, a website’s social media presence must be seen in forums and platforms that are authentic, relevant, and meaningful. These are just some issues that we tackle through the SEO consulting services provided by chronistsempelis.

With our social media optimization consultation program, we also note that social shares that are just like inbound links can help a lot in improving a website’s SEO ranking. A link can even be shared by multiple social media accounts at the same time. Aside from social media, SEO consulting services provided by chronistsempelis also deal with website content, structure and management.

While it is important to focus on social media, the content, structure and management of a website should not be disregarded because these things make up the core of the web page, which is being promoted in the first place. You can learn all these with our help and by accessing the SEO consulting services provided by chronistsempelis. Our services developed over the years based on significant experiences in internet marketing, web development and SEO, so you have an assurance that they are effective

Things to Remember When Purchasing Iron On Patches


Lots of people are purchasing custom patches for different reasons. There are groups that simply want to raise awareness and organizations that want to highlight their significance and presence. Companies also use this as a tool for marketing, branding and advertising. The increasing demand for iron on patches continually makes the industry bigger. Today, you will already be able to find countless embroidery companies on the internet. It is highly convenient to place your orders online as this saves much time and effort. However, there are a couple of things you need to remember when purchasing custom patches online.

Range of Options

The options that manufacturers offer differ from one another. This is not a problem if you are looking to have simple designs on your patches. However, this could be an issue in cases when you will need your patches to have specific features and add-ons. For example, the Velcro backing is not one of the most sought out backing option for custom patches which is why there are lots of manufacturers who do not offer them. It would be wise to determine the specifications you need for your iron on patches first before choosing where to purchase. You can check our website and see that we offer most of the customization options you could look for. Of course, you can also have our artists check your design in case it needs any revisions.


Sewn Sample

Purchasing custom embroidered patches online might be convenient but there is one thing that walking into a local store can offer that online stores can’t. If you actually go to the establishment of a local embroidery or patch store, you will get the chance of seeing and examining their samples yourself. This is crucial in order to be certain of the quality that you can expect from them. In order to get the best buy online, it is highly important to look for other ways to thoroughly check the quality of the sewn samples since you will not be able to do this in person. There are people who resort to reading company reviews. This is actually a wise thing to do since it can help you find out whether the previous clients of the company you are planning to opt for were satisfied with the products they received or not.

Sample Designs Matter

One of the most common ways to check the sample designs of an online store is to go to their gallery page. They are most likely to have one in their official website. If you are still in the process of looking where to purchase your custom patches and you are planning to have the manufacturer design them, you should know that not all artists can create the designs precisely according to your liking or the description you submitted to them.

There are also various designs that are not ideal for certain types of patches. You have to be certain that you are dealing with an experienced designer that can make the necessary revisions and adjustments on your patches if there are any. The sample designs is one of the good basis of which company to purchase from since they can help you determine whether the patch specialists of a certain company are able to create designs according to your liking.

Iron On Patches


Of course, the prices matter especially if you are planning to have a couple of add-ons or if you are going to buy in bulk. Custom patches can instantly look better with various add-ons. They can also allow your patches to be attached easily on the garments. There are even add-ons that can increase the lifespan of the custom patches. The problem is that add-ons can easily cause your orders to get a significant increase in cost.

It would be better to determine the add-ons you want your iron on patches to have before deciding to purchase. Check each features of your patches and see whether you want to customize it or not. There are different border options, thread types and backings that you can choose from. There are certain options that are offered for free but those that are not among the standard deliverable options could be considered as an add-on.

There are lots of things you can do in order to ensure that your iron on patches will look great. Of course, we can help you with that. From designs and revisions to the wide range of customization options, we will help you get the exact patches you are looking for.

In Product

An Overview of TaylorMade Golf Clubs


American-based company TaylorMade Golf is one of the most well-known global golfing brands.  The world knows the quality and craftsmanship that goes into the design, manufacture, and creation of their golf clubs.

In fact, their golf clubs are consistently on the list of the best in the world.  Both amateurs and professionals alike rate TaylorMade golf clubs high in terms of performance, playability, forgiveness, and speed.

TaylorMade Golf is highly in-demand, but it is quite expensive to acquire. Especially if you would like to buy a set of all its golf clubs, it could get very pricey. However, rockbottomgolf.com, a large discount golf retailer, have made it possible for you to acquire quality, top-notch products from this brand without the usual expense that goes with it. They are a large discount golf retailer, one of the most trusted in the industry.

Rock Bottom Golf has several discounted TaylorMadegolf clubs available. Here is a list of top-notch golf clubs, along with their fine features:

1. Drivers

  • M1 Driver – this is the longest driver that the brand has.  It features multi-material construction. In fact, M stands for Multi-Material.  It features a high-strength yet light crown that’s made of carbon composite.  Since each golfer has a unique swing, this particular driver has made it possible for players to create a shot that suits them. This is through its patented Personal Fit System.  It has a head adjustment system (three-step) that consists of the front and back tracks, and the loft sleeve. It also has three different stock shaft offerings – the High Launch, Mid Launch, and Low Launch.
  • M2 Driver – the M2 driver provides forgiveness and exceptional distance to its users.  Same as M1, it also has a multi-material construction. The forgiveness and distance of M2 is made possible through its patented Massive Sweet Spot technology.  It is designed with high Moment of Inertia (MOI), inverted cone technology, and a redesigned speed pocket.  Another one of its unique features is Hot Trajectory.  This allows the driver to be both hot and forgiving, generating a high launch/low spin trajectory.  It also has an adjustable loft sleeve of 12 positions and multiple shaft options.
  • Kalea Ladies Driver – this line of women’s clubs feature lightweight materials that generate more club head speed. This is especially designed and constructed in order to optimize gaps in distance from the driver through the wedge.


2. Fairways

  • M1 – this carbon crown fairway guarantees optimal launch and speed in every shot.  It features a Front Track System with two sliding weights of 15 grams each for your preferred shot shape.  It is available in lofts 3, 3-HL and 5.  Loft 3 has an angle of 15.5 degrees, while 3-HL has 17 degrees.  Loft 5 has 19 degrees.
  • M2 – The M2 comes in regular, ladies, and junior varieties.  This is especially suited for golfers who aim for great distance and playability from their golf club. It has all of TaylorMade’s patented features such as Carbon Composite Crown, New Speed Pocket technology, and Best in Class sound.

3. Irons

  • M2 – the focus of the M2 irons is for you to gain maximum distance without sacrificing the peak trajectory.  This is a specially-designed iron that is able to fly far and high.  It features a Thick-Thin fluted hosel, which removes significant weight and promotes higher launch and speed.  It also has a 360 degree undercut, speed pocket, thin face with inverted cone technology, and 3D sound and feel system.
  • Psi – this iron is specifically designed for a more advanced intermediate to a superior player.  It features a multi-material badge that reduces vibration, tungsten that put weight in the long irons, and forged short irons. Its key technologies include cut-thru speed pocket, face slots, multi-material damping system, inverted cone technology, progressive spec package, and an ultra-thin face.


4. Wedges

  • Tour-Preferred EF Wedge – this tour-validated wedge is designed by renowned designer Clay Long.  It features electroformed nickel cobalt grooves that provide long lasting spin, a soft 1025 carbon steel body, a PVD finish, and a KBS tour wedge shaft.

5. Putters

  • Ghost Tour Black – this design has a matte black finish, and made from milled aluminum.  It also features a Golf Pride grip for an enhanced feel.
  • Daddy Long Legs – true temper lightweight steel shaft for extreme counterbalance and counter control weight for greater control. It is made from a lightweight steel shaft and aluminum.
Author Bio:

At rockbottomgolf.com, you can find several discounted TaylorMade golf accessories. For more details contact to us

In Sports

Why it’s Good to Invest in Motivational Speakers?


Once in a while, every organization needs to take a breather from all the workload, unwind, and give their members a moment to pause, look at, and enjoy themselves from within. That’s because as the saying goes, “All work and no play makes a man dull.” We can all be likened to a pitcher of water – useful until it runs out, then it needs to be replenished to become useful again.
Many organizations unwind through outings or excursions, providing them with their needed play and leisure. Now, here is a suggestion – why not inject a motivational aspect in your company outings or excursions?

Let us make this clear, though: We’re not against events that are for pure play or leisure. Ours is just a suggestion to infuse more value into events like these.

If you want a no fuss way to do so, then we suggest you get a motivational speaker to add sass to your company’s leisurely activities.

Isn’t a Motivational Speaker Just a Waste of Money?

Some people may argue that motivational speakers is just a waste of money. We can’t blame them – who needs talk and all that “fluff” stuff? But this we’re telling you: If you choose the right motivational speaker, you are actually contributing to improving and setting the bar higher for your organization.

Maybe you will be convinced if you learn just how many companies are actually employing the services of motivational speakers to beef up their company workshops and seminars. American Express is one, which, as we all know, is a global standard when it comes to the business of credit, charge, and gift cards, savings, insurance, and other personal and business finance services in the U. S.

 Motivational Speaker

Another is Wells Fargo, which believed that a motivational speaker really helped them level up their standards at work. United Airlines also had no regrets hiring a speaker to motivate them through the course of their work – five hundred of their employees went to such a session, and they found it not just entertaining and engaging, but highly educational and full of insight as well.

NAPA Auto Parts, on the other hand, couldn’t believe that the speaker they hired actually even researched about their company and their background, making the speaking engagement with the employees really spot on. For those who think that motivational speeches take up too much time, well, take it from Subway Sandwiches – a session they had just lasted an hour, yet they found it to be jam packed with all the information they needed to raise up their spirits.

When you should Hire a Motivational Speaker

We understand that organizations do not need a motivational speaker all the time – but there are circumstances when we highly suggest that you get one. As we related a while ago, you don’t need that much time. An hour, even less, would suffice, depending on how much time your company allows and how much motivation you actually want your employees to get.

Good Motivational Speaker

The following are some of the instances when hiring motivational speakers can push your organization to yield great results:

  • When you want to belong to the top one percent. The top one percent is defined as the excellent brood, a rarity in mankind these days, but you don’t actually have to be born with certain traits to belong to this percentage! Let this speaker show you how.
  • When you need to understand how management–employee relationships should really be. Perhaps your employees have already engaged in a strike or two for the past half year, or you do not understand why, despite your efforts to raise compensations, your employees are still leaving and looking for greener pastures. This speaker can relate to you the secret of employee engagement.
  • When your organization is going through tough times. When times are hard, it is really challenging to make sound decisions due to frustration and burnout. You need someone who will act as a third party, albeit of the good kind – one that will hark you back to your senses and push you to get back up. This speaker can do just that, backed up with research so he does not just give your mere words but a proverbial sword that can slay problems.

If you are currently in search for a good motivational speaker to help you achieve your goal for your organization, then visiting our site can help you.

In People

The New Trend in Anabolic Steroid


Many researchers aim to focus on looking for an anabolism steroid that works pretty much the same as other steroids do, but with minimal or zero sideResearch-4 effects. And so far, the greatest advancement of this research endeavor is the formulation of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARM’s).

Androgen Receptors (AR) play a vital role in various body functions such as sexual drives, bones, skeletal muscles, and other organs. Surprisingly, only one available androgen receptor in the body can regulate the effects of the natural steroids (testosterone and dihydro testosterone) and other synthetic steroids in the body. This is done by simply activating genes and other non-genomic signaling components in the body.

Formulators of sarms search for anabolism steroid that has a selective property. It is obvious that sarms has compounds and structures that are different from traditional steroids. This steroid is composed of compounds that can form hydrogen bonds that take part in Van der Walls interactions along with the side chains of amino acids that arrange the bonding pocket of the androgen receptor. This is the process which leads to ligand-bonding.

When bonding of the ligand is done, the ligand-androgen complex transforms its shape in a very tissue specific manner. Obviously, this selective process is important because the skin and other body muscles contain different enzymes and cofactors. When the ligand-androgen receptor complex started to put these together, they can activate the genes responsible for protein synthesis. The good thing is that, sarms, as an androgen dht-logoreceptor, only triggers anabolism effects in the muscles and does not result to any androgenic effects in the skin or prostrate. This is why side effects such as prostate enlargement and other DHT related issues occur.

It is this specified receptor modulators function of sarms that causes muscle growth and others without having to suffer from steroids’ common adverse effects.

The specific formulations of sarms search for many problems faced by elderly people and bodybuilding enthusiasts as a means of addressing them.

People suffer from decreasing production of testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin e (SHBG) as they age. The amount of testosterone released in the body matters for androgen receptors because this leads to weaker muscles, less energy, poor sexual performance, etc., but it is possible to minimize these phenomena with the use of anabolic steroids, although chemists and health professionals realize that using these steroids as people age may have worse side effects. However, these side effects are proven to be minimal when using sarms.

On the same vein, bodybuilders benefit from sarms because it carefully attacks anabolic and androgenic activities separately, which other steroids cannot. The fact that this is also taken in lower dosage is immaterial in both its muscle growth and prevention of water retention and gynecomastia functions.

In conclusion, a drug that can impede or stimulate similar hormone receptor through varying conditions can be called a selective receptor modulator. The main difference of sarms from other steroids lies in itssarm capacity to give effects in a selective manner, meaning it is beneficial for the target tissue while eradicating unwanted side effects to other tissues.

Although the perfect anabolism drug that can really suit the needs of bodybuilders and sports enthusiasts has yet to be researched, sarms search for alternative solution is a success. With its formulation, at the very least, it is the most effective way to address common hormonal problems. The popularity and effectiveness of sarms has attracted many researchers, pharmaceuticals, and health related fields. However, to have a good sarms search, one has to consider the structure of the chosen sarms because a slight change in the overall structure may result to negative effects.